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dc.contributor.authorSegura-aguilar, J.
dc.contributor.authorMuñoz, Patricia S.
dc.contributor.authorInzunza, José
dc.contributor.authorVarshney, Mukesh Kumar
dc.contributor.authorNalvarte, Ivan
dc.contributor.authorMannervik, Bengt
dc.date.accessioned2022-02-25T16:48:52Z
dc.date.available2022-02-25T16:48:52Z
dc.date.issued2022-02
dc.identifier10.3390/antiox11020296
dc.identifier.issn20763921
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12728/9939
dc.description.abstractGlutathione is an important antioxidant that plays a crucial role in the cellular protection against oxidative stress and detoxification of electrophilic mutagens, and carcinogens. Glutathione transferases are enzymes catalyzing glutathione-dependent reactions that lead to inactivation and conjugation of toxic compounds, processes followed by subsequent excretion of the detoxified prod-ucts. Degeneration and loss of neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal neurons generally involves oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, alpha-synuclein aggregation to neurotoxic oligomers, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein degradation dysfunction, and endoplas-mic reticulum stress. However, it is still unclear what triggers these neurodegenerative processes. It has been reported that aminochrome may elicit all of these mechanisms and, interestingly, ami-nochrome is formed inside neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons during neuromelanin synthesis. Aminochrome is a neurotoxic ortho-quinone formed in neuromelanin synthesis. How-ever, it seems paradoxical that the neurotoxin aminochrome is generated during neuromelanin syn-thesis, even though healthy seniors have these neurons intact when they die. The explanation of this paradox is the existence of protective tools against aminochrome neurotoxicity composed of the enzymes DT-diaphorase, expressed in these neurons, and glutathione transferase M2-2, expressed in astrocytes. Recently, it has been reported that dopaminergic neurons can be protected by gluta-thione transferase M2-2 from astrocytes, which secrete exosomes containing the protective enzyme.es_ES
dc.language.isoenes_ES
dc.publisherMDPIes_ES
dc.subjectAminochromees_ES
dc.subjectAstrocyteses_ES
dc.subjectDopaminees_ES
dc.subjectGlutathionees_ES
dc.subjectGlutathione transferasees_ES
dc.subjectNeurones_ES
dc.subjectNeuroprotectiones_ES
dc.subjectParkinson’s diseasees_ES
dc.titleNeuroprotection against Aminochrome Neurotoxicity: Glutathione Transferase M2-2 and DT-Diaphorasees_ES
dc.typeArticlees_ES


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