Efonidipine Exerts Cerebroprotective Effect by Down-regulation of TGF-β/SMAD-2-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats
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Chavda, Vishal K.
Patel, Snehal S.
Barreto, George E.
Md Ashraf, Ghulam
Calcium overload and hyperglycemia are risks of stroke onset in diabetics. Our study was designed to elucidate the beneficial role of calcium channel blockers by targeting voltage-gated calcium channels in diabetes-associated cerebrovascular complications. Diabetes was induced using the neonatal streptozotocin rat model. After confirmation of diabetes, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was carried out. The pre-treatment with 1 mg/kg/day efonidipine was administered for the period of 4 weeks. After 24 h of ischemic induction surgery, the neurological score was determined, and blood was collected for determination of biochemical parameters. Treatment with efonidipine showed a significant reduction in post-ischemic brain infract volume, brain hemisphere weight difference, neurological score, Na+-K+ ATPase activity, serum CK-MB, and LDH levels in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic MCAO-induced animals. While no significant changes in glucose and lipid levels were observed by treatment, efonidipine significantly decreased the levels of malondialdehyde, acetylcholine esterase, and nitrite levels and increased the levels of antioxidant markers in both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic MCAO animals. TGF-β and VEGF were found to be down-regulated after treatment with efonidipine in gene expression study. In conclusion, the study data supports the cerebroprotective role of efonidipine in diabetic animals possibly through TGF-β/SMAD-2 signaling pathway.
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