Description of tongue movements on swallowing patterns
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the different swallowing patterns regarding tongue movement during saliva swallowing in healthy participants. Design: Seventeen participants (23.0 ± 3.6 years old) were included in this cross-sectional study. The movement of the tongue (anterior, middle and posterior portions) on the three axes of space (inferior-superior, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral) was recorded using a 3D electromagnetic articulograph. The tongue movement patterns registered during saliva swallowing were classified according to Bourdiol et al. (2014) into Type I, II or III. Results: Three swallowing patterns were identified (Type I, 64.7 %; Type II, 5.9 %; and Type III, 29.4 %). On the anterior-posterior axis, the displacement of the three portions of the tongue was significantly higher in Type III pattern compared with the Type I pattern. Furthermore, on the superior-inferior axis, the displacement of the anterior portion was significantly higher in Type III pattern compared with Type I pattern. In Type I pattern, on the inferior-superior axis, the smallest range of displacement occurred in the anterior portion of the tongue, followed by the middle and, finally, the posterior portion. In the analysis of Type III swallowing pattern, no significant differences were found on the range of displacement of the tongue portions on the three axes. Conclusion: Statistical differences were found between swallowing patterns Type I and III regarding tongue movement. The frequency of pattern II found in the participants of this study was not high enough to compare the three patterns. However, the results obtained indicate that the methodology applied could be used to identify the patterns based on quantitative data. © 2020
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