Raloxifene attenuates oxidative stress and preserves mitochondrial function in astrocytic cells upon glucose deprivation
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Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by metabolic insults are both hallmarks of various neurological disorders, whereby neuronal cells are severely affected by decreased glucose supply to the brain. Likely injured, astrocytes are important for neuronal homeostasis and therapeutic strategies should be directed towards improving astrocytic functions to improve brain's outcome. In the present study, we aimed to assess the actions of raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator in astrocytic cells under glucose deprivation. Our findings indicated that pretreatment with 1 µM raloxifene results in an increase in cell viability and attenuated nuclei fragmentation. Raloxifene's actions also rely on the reduction of oxidative stress and preservation of mitochondrial function in glucose-deprived astrocytic cells, suggesting the possible direct effects of this compound on mitochondria. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that raloxifene's protective actions might be mediated in part by astrocytes in the setting of a metabolic insult. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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