Effect of Functionalized Multiwalled CNTs on the Selective Formation of Calcium Oxalate Crystals by Electrocrystallization
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The electrocrystallization (EC) of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with itaconic acid (IA) and the monoester derivatives monomethylitaconate or mono-octadecylitaconate, which were used as new IA-ester templates supported on indium tin oxide glass substrate as working electrode, was performed by applying a 9 mA current at 37 and 60 °C for 5 min. Under the above EC reaction conditions, a broad variety of CaOx morphologies and crystal forms was found. The morphology control and coexistence of CaOx monohydrate (COM) and CaOx dihydrate was achieved through in vitro EC according to X-ray diffraction spectra. We found that all the functionalized MWCNTs were more efficient inhibitors of CaOx crystallization than the typical citrate model, where MWCNT-IA was the most effective stabilizing template of COM crystals, because carboxylic acid groups of IA moieties in MWCNT-IA would be better Ca2+ ions binding sites than IA ester groups. Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society.
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