Identification of volatile biomarkers of Giardia duodenalis infection in children with persistent diarrhoea
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Currently, chronic diarrhoea syndrome in children is a very common pathology whose aetiology is sometimes difficult to identify. Methodologies for the diagnosis of infections have diversified, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a very useful tool. The aim of this study was to identify volatile biomarkers of the presence of Giardia duodenalis in the faeces of patients with chronic diarrhoea (with and without giardiasis) using static headspace extraction followed by GC/MS. The analysis of the volatiles extracted from the headspace had enough sensitivity to detect differences in the volatile profiles in the faeces of the patients with and without Giardia duodenalis infection and discriminate between them. Dimethyl disulphide and trisulphide were found in the faeces of patients without giardiasis but not in the faeces of patients with G. duodenalis. Finally, three possible biomarkers, acetic acid, 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-butanediol and 1,3-dimethoxy-2-propanol, were proposed to identify patients with giardiasis; these compounds were not present in the patients without the parasite. Multivariate analysis revealed that principal component 1 separated the stool samples according to the presence of infection by G. duodenalis despite the inter-individual variability in biological specimens such as faeces. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
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