Hydroxytyrosol supplementation modulates the expression of miRNAs in rodents and in humans
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Dietary microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation could be important for health and wellbeing. Part of the healthful activities of polyphenols might be due to a modulation of miRNAs' expression. Among the most biologically active polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol (HT) has never been studied for its actions on miRNAs. We investigated whether HT could modulate the expression of miRNAs in vivo. We performed an unbiased intestinal miRNA screening in mice supplemented (for 8 weeks) with nutritionally relevant amounts of HT. HT modulated the expression of several miRNAs. Analysis of other tissues revealed consistent HT-induced modulation of only few miRNAs. Also, HT administration increased triglycerides levels. Acute treatment with HT and in vitro experiments provided mechanistic insights. The HT-induced expression of one miRNA was confirmed in healthy volunteers supplemented with HT in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. HT consumption affects specific miRNAs' expression in rodents and humans. Our findings suggest that the modulation of miRNAs' action through HT consumption might partially explain its healthful activities and might be pharmanutritionally exploited in current therapies targeting endogenous miRNAs. However, the effects of HT on triglycerides warrant further investigations. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
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