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dc.contributor.authorRivera D.
dc.contributor.authorSalinas C.
dc.contributor.authorRamos-Usuga D.
dc.contributor.authorDelgado-Mejía I.D.
dc.contributor.authorVasallo Key Y.
dc.contributor.authorHernández Agurcia G.P.
dc.contributor.authorValencia Vásquez J.
dc.contributor.authorGarcía-Guerrero C.E.
dc.contributor.authorGarcía De La Cadena C.
dc.contributor.authorRabago Barajas B.V.
dc.contributor.authorRomero-García I.
dc.contributor.authorCampos Varillas A.I.
dc.contributor.authorSánchez-Sansegundo M.
dc.contributor.authorGalvao-Carmona A.
dc.contributor.authorLara L.
dc.contributor.authorGranja Gilbert E.J.
dc.contributor.authorMartín-Lobo P.
dc.contributor.authorVelázquez-Cardoso J.
dc.contributor.authorCaracuel A.
dc.contributor.authorArango-Lasprilla J.C.
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-02T22:27:01Z
dc.date.available2020-09-02T22:27:01Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier10.3233/NRE-172248
dc.identifier.citation41, 3, 661-671
dc.identifier.issn10538135
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12728/6023
dc.descriptionOBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Concentration Endurance Test (d2) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the d2 test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The Total number of items processed (TN), Total number of correct responses (CR), Total performance (TP), and Concentration performance (CP) scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age 2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on all scores, such that scores increased linearly as a function of age. TN scores were affected by age 2 for Guatemala and Puerto Rico; CR scores were affected by age 2 for Mexico; TP scores were affected by age 2 for Chile, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Spain; and CP scores for Mexico and Spain. Models indicated that children whose parents had a MLPE >12 years obtained higher scores compared to children whose parents had a MLPE≤12 years for Mexico and Spain in all scores, and Puerto Rico for TN, CR, and TP, and Guatemala and Paraguay for CP scores. Sex affect the scores for Ecuador and Honduras (CP scores). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the d2 test in pediatric populations. © 2017 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherIOS Press
dc.subjectAttention
dc.subjectConcentration Endurance Test (d2)
dc.subjectneuropsychology
dc.subjectpediatric population
dc.subjectSpanish-speaking populations
dc.subjectattention
dc.subjectchild
dc.subjectChile
dc.subjectEcuador
dc.subjecteducation
dc.subjectendurance
dc.subjectfemale
dc.subjectGuatemala
dc.subjectHonduras
dc.subjecthuman
dc.subjectmajor clinical study
dc.subjectmale
dc.subjectMexico
dc.subjectmultiple linear regression analysis
dc.subjectneuropsychology
dc.subjectParaguay
dc.subjectPuerto Rico
dc.subjectSpain
dc.subjectspeech
dc.subjectattention
dc.subjectlanguage
dc.subjectpsychologic test
dc.subjectreference value
dc.subjectSouth and Central America
dc.subjectstandards
dc.subjectstatistical model
dc.subjectAttention
dc.subjectChild
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectLanguage
dc.subjectLatin America
dc.subjectLinear Models
dc.subjectPsychological Tests
dc.subjectReference Values
dc.titleConcentration Endurance Test (d2): Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population
dc.typeArticle


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