Histamine H3 inverse agonist BF 2649 or antagonist with partial h4 agonist activity clobenpropit reduces amyloid beta peptide-induced brain pathology in alzheimer’s disease
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the leading causes for disability and death affecting millions of people worldwide. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies are needed to reduce brain pathology associated with AD. In view of increasing awareness regarding involvement of histaminergic pathways in AD, we explored the role of one H3 receptor inverse agonist BF 2649 and one selective H3 receptor antagonist with partial H4 agonist activity in amyloid beta peptide (AβP) infusion-induced brain pathology in a rat model. AD-like pathology was produced by administering AβP (1–40) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) in the left lateral ventricle (250 ng/10 μl, once daily) for 4 weeks. Control rats received saline. In separate group of rats, either BF 2649 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or clobenpropit (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered once daily for 1 week after 3 weeks of AβP administration. After 30 days, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, edema formation, neuronal, glial injuries, and AβP deposits were examined in the brain. A significant reduction in AβP deposits along with marked reduction in neuronal or glial reactions was seen in the drug-treated group. The BBB breakdown to Evans blue albumin and radioiodine in the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum was also significantly reduced in these drug-treated groups. Clobenpropit showed superior effects than the BF2649 in reducing brain pathology in AD. Taken together, our observations are the first to show that blockade of H3 and stimulation of H4 receptors are beneficial for the treatment of AD pathology, not reported earlier. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.
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