Oxidative stress augments chemoreflex sensitivity in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia
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Chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia (CIH) elicits plasticity of the carotid sinus and phrenic nerves via reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine whether CIH-induced alterations in ventilation, metabolism, and heart rate are also dependent on ROS, we measured responses to acute hypoxia in conscious rats after 14 and 21 d of either CIH or normoxia (NORM), with or without concomitant administration of allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor), combined allopurinol plus losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist), or apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor). Carotid body nitrotyrosine production was measured by immunohistochemistry. CIH produced an increase in the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia that was virtually eliminated by all three pharmacologic interventions. CIH caused a robust increase in carotid body nitrotyrosine production that was greatly attenuated by allopurinol plus losartan and by apocynin but unaffected by allopurinol. CIH caused a decrease in metabolic rate and a reduction in hypoxic bradycardia. Both of these effects were prevented by allopurinol, allopurinol plus losartan, and apocynin. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
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