Differences in the city branding of European capitals based on online vs. offline sources of information
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This study analyzes city branding in five European capitals and compares the brand equity generated through online and offline media. Specifically, this study is intended to fill this gap by proposing a multi-group analysis that presents the differences in brand generation and destination preference. The study focuses on divergences in the backgrounds, components, and consequences of brand equity based on the use of online or offline media. The empirical application is performed on the basis of a sample of 225 visitors who have traveled to the following five European capitals: London, Paris, Berlin, Rome, and Madrid. To evaluate the measurement model and contrast the hypotheses, we use partial least squares regression. The results of the study reveal relevant recommendations for tourism managers regarding city brand recognition, loyalty, and the equilibrium between offline and online tools to maximize brand equity. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
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