Cotinine: A Therapy for Memory Extinction in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally threatening or unescapable horrifying events. Actual therapies fail to alleviate the emotional suffering and cognitive impairment associated with this disorder, mostly because they are ineffective in treating the failure to extinguish trauma memories in a great percentage of those affected. In this review, current behavioral, cellular, and molecular evidence supporting the use of cotinine for treating PTSD are reviewed. The role of the positive modulation by cotinine of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and their downstream effectors, the protection of astroglia, and the inhibition of microglia in the PTSD brain are also discussed.
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ReviewMendoza C.; Barreto G.E.; Iarkov A.; Tarasov V.V.; Aliev G.; Echeverria V. (Humana Press Inc., 2018)
ArticleBarreto G.E.; Yarkov A.; Ávila-Rodriguez M.; Aliev G.; Echeverria V. (Bentham Science Publishers B.V., 2015)
Intranasal Cotinine Plus Krill Oil Facilitates Fear Extinction, Decreases Depressive-Like Behavior, and Increases Hippocampal Calcineurin A Levels in Mice (2020) Alvarez-Ricartes N.; Oliveros-Matus P.; Mendoza C.; Perez-Urrutia N.; Echeverria F.; Iarkov A.; Barreto G.E.; Echeverria V. (Humana Press Inc., 2018)