Sex differences in Parkinson's disease: Features on clinical symptoms, treatment outcome, sexual hormones and genetics
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Ávila Rodríguez M.F.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Sex is an important factor in the development of PD, as reflected by the fact that it is more common in men than in women by an approximate ratio of 2:1. Our hypothesis is that differences in PD among men and women are highly determined by sex-dependent differences in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, which arise from environmental, hormonal and genetic influences. Sex hormones, specifically estrogens, influence PD pathogenesis and might play an important role in PD differences between men and women. The objective of this review was to discuss the PD physiopathology and point out sex differences in nigrostriatal degeneration, symptoms, genetics, responsiveness to treatments and biochemical and molecular mechanisms among patients suffering from this disease. Finally, we discuss the role estrogens may have on PD sex differences. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
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