Development and psychometric evaluation of the arterial puncture self-efficacy scale
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Background: Arterial puncture for arterial blood gases (ABG) analysis can be a risky, painful, difficult-to-perform procedure that is often insufficiently practised and generates stress and discomfort amongst patients and healthcare professionals. Self-efficacy is a key component in the acquisition of procedural skills. Therefore, professionals' self-efficacy in arterial puncture should be measured before attempting the procedure on real patients. Objective: To develop and psychometrically assess a self-efficacy scale in arterial puncture. Design: An observational cross-sectional design was used in this study. Setting: Faculty of Education Sciences, Nursing and Physiotherapy in a higher education institution in the south of Spain. Participants: A convenience sample of 342 nursing students entered and completed the study. All participants met the following inclusion criteria: (1) ≥. 18 years old and (2) enrolled in a nursing degree programme during the 2014/2015 academic year. Participants were 74% female (n = 254) and their age ranged from 18 to 50, with a mean age of 21.74 years (SD = 5.14). Method: The Arterial Puncture Self-Efficacy Scale (APSES) was developed and psychometrically tested. Reliability and content validity were studied. Predictive validity and concurrent validity assessed criterion validity. In addition, principal component analysis and known-group analysis evaluated construct validity. Results: Principal component analysis revealed the two-subscale structure of the final 22-item version of the Arterial Puncture Self-Efficacy Scale (APSES). A total Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.97 showed its high reliability. The APSES' content validity index was excellent (S-CVI/Ave = 0.95). Predictive and concurrent validity analysis demonstrated the good criterion validity of the tool. Supporting the APSES' sensitivity and specificity, known-groups analysis evidenced significant differences (p < 0.001) in self-efficacy levels between groups. Conclusion: The APSES showed good psychometric properties for measuring self-efficacy in arterial puncture for ABG analysis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
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