City branding in European capitals: An analysis from the visitor perspective
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The purpose of this study is to analyze the application of city branding in five European capitals – London, Paris, Berlin, Rome, and Madrid – using a measurement model to link brand equity to its antecedents and consequences. The measurement model and structural model are estimated through partial least squares. An index, designated the City Branding Index (CBI), is developed to quantify and compare the brand equity of the five European capitals selected. The findings show that the brand equity of the European capitals consists of the awareness and perceived quality of a city as a destination and the influence of attitude on the brand and brand image. The CBI reveals the existence of gaps among the five capitals in the four dimensions that compose brand equity. Because city branding is a useful tool for the capitals to gain competitive advantages, the results could allow city managing bodies and firms from the sector to evaluate each city's competitive position with regard to its competitors and to design strategies for each European capital. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
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