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dc.contributor.authorCalderon R.
dc.contributor.authorRajendiran K.
dc.contributor.authorKim U.J.
dc.contributor.authorPalma P.
dc.contributor.authorArancibia-Miranda N.
dc.contributor.authorSilva-Moreno E.
dc.contributor.authorCorradini F.
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-02T22:13:46Z
dc.date.available2020-09-02T22:13:46Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114682
dc.identifier.citation264, , -
dc.identifier.issn02697491
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12728/3867
dc.descriptionPerchlorate occurs naturally in the environment in deposits of nitrate and can be formed in the atmosphere and precipitate into soil. However, little is known about the occurrence and levels of perchlorate in soils and fertilizers in Chile and its impacts on agricultural systems and food safety. In this study, concentrations of perchlorate were determined in 101 surface soils and 17 fertilizers [nitrogenous (n = 8), nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium (NPK; n = 3), phosphate (n = 2) and non-nitrogenous (n = 4)] collected across Chile from 2017 to 2018. Our results show that perchlorate was detected mainly in agricultural soils (mean: 0.32 ng g−1), grassland rotation sites (0.41 ngg−1) and urban locations (0.38 ng g−1). Interestingly, elevated concentrations of perchlorate (9.66 and 54.0 ng g−1) were found in agricultural soils. All fertilizers contained perchlorate: nitrogenous fertilizers (mean: 32.6 mg kg−1), NPK (mean: 12.6 mg kg−1), non-nitrogenous fertilizers (mean: 10.2 mg kg−1) and phosphates (mean: 11.5 mg kg−1). Only one type of nitrogenous fertilizer (KNO3: 95.3 mg kg−1) exceeded the international regulation limit (50 mg kg−1). For two agronomic practices, the content of perchlorate in lettuce increased as the fertilizer application rate increased, with fertigation promoting a more significant accumulation. However, the concentrations generally remained below regulatory values. Our results suggest that fertilizers constitute an important source of perchlorate in soils. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherElsevier Ltd
dc.subjectFertilizers
dc.subjectFood safety
dc.subjectPerchlorate
dc.subjectSoil contamination
dc.subjectAgricultural robots
dc.subjectAgriculture
dc.subjectNitrogen fertilizers
dc.subjectPotash
dc.subjectPotassium Nitrate
dc.subjectSoils
dc.subjectUrban growth
dc.subjectAgricultural soils
dc.subjectAgricultural system
dc.subjectAgronomic practices
dc.subjectElevated concentrations
dc.subjectFertilizer applications
dc.subjectInternational regulations
dc.subjectNitrogen phosphorous
dc.subjectUrban locations
dc.subjectPhosphate fertilizers
dc.subjectnitrogen
dc.subjectperchlorate
dc.subjectphosphate
dc.subjectphosphorus
dc.subjectpotassium
dc.subjectfertilizer
dc.subjectperchlorate
dc.subjectagricultural soil
dc.subjectconcentration (composition)
dc.subjectenvironmental fate
dc.subjectleafy vegetable
dc.subjectnitrogen
dc.subjectperchlorate
dc.subjectsoil-vegetation interaction
dc.subjectsource identification
dc.subjectArticle
dc.subjectbioaccumulation
dc.subjectChile
dc.subjectconcentration (parameter)
dc.subjectcontrolled study
dc.subjectcropping system
dc.subjectfertigation
dc.subjectfertilizer application
dc.subjectfood intake
dc.subjectgrassland
dc.subjecthealth hazard
dc.subjecthuman
dc.subjectlettuce
dc.subjectnonhuman
dc.subjectpopulation exposure
dc.subjectsoil pollution
dc.subjecturban area
dc.subjectvegetable
dc.subjectagriculture
dc.subjectsoil
dc.subjectChile
dc.subjectLactuca
dc.subjectLactuca sativa
dc.subjectAgriculture
dc.subjectChile
dc.subjectFertilizers
dc.subjectLettuce
dc.subjectPerchlorates
dc.subjectSoil
dc.titleSources and fates of perchlorate in soils in Chile: A case study of perchlorate dynamics in soil-crop systems using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) fields.
dc.typeArticle


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