Solar uv radiation-induced dna bipyrimidine photoproducts: Formation and mechanistic insights
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This review chapter presents a critical survey of the main available information on the UVB and UVA bipyrimidine photoproducts which constitute the predominant recipient classes of photo-induced DNA damage. Evidence is provided that UVB irradiation of isolated DNA in aqueous solutions and in cells gives rise to the predominant generation of cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and, to a lesser extent, of pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs), the importance of which is strongly primary sequence dependent. A notable change in the photoproduct distribution is observed when DNA either in the dry or in desiccated microorganisms is exposed to UVC or UVB photons with an overwhelming formation of 5-(α-thymidyl)-5,6-dihydrothymidine, also called spore photoproduct (dSP), at the expense of CPDs and 6-4PPs. UVA irradiation of isolated and cellular DNA gives rise predominantly to bipyrimidine photoproducts with the overwhelming formation of thymine-containing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers at the exclusion of 6-4PPs. UVA photons have been shown to modulate the distribution of UVB dimeric pyrimidine photoproducts by triggering isomerization of the 6-4PPs into related Dewar valence isomers. Mechanistic aspects of the formation of bipyrimidine photoproducts are discussed in the light of recent photophysical and theoretical studies. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.
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