Molecular mechanisms involved in the protective actions of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators in brain cells
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Synthetic selective modulators of the estrogen receptors (SERMs) have shown to protect neurons and glial cells against toxic insults. Among the most relevant beneficial effects attributed to these compounds are the regulation of inflammation, attenuation of astrogliosis and microglial activation, prevention of excitotoxicity and as a consequence the reduction of neuronal cell death. Under pathological conditions, the mechanism of action of the SERMs involves the activation of estrogen receptors (ERs) and G protein-coupled receptor for estrogens (GRP30). These receptors trigger neuroprotective responses such as increasing the expression of antioxidants and the activation of kinase-mediated survival signaling pathways. Despite the advances in the knowledge of the pathways activated by the SERMs, their mechanism of action is still not entirely clear, and there are several controversies. In this review, we focused on the molecular pathways activated by SERMs in brain cells, mainly astrocytes, as a response to treatment with raloxifene and tamoxifen. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.
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