Dendritic cells are crucial for cardiovascular remodeling and modulate neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression upon mineralocorticoid receptor activation
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Background:Adaptive immunity is crucial in cardiovascular and renal inflammation/fibrosis upon hyperactivation of mineralocorticoid receptor. We have previously demonstrated that dendritic cells can respond to mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and the neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in dendritic cells is highly increased during aldosterone (Aldo)/mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent cardiovascular damage. However, the interrelationship among dendritic cells, target organs inflammation/fibrosis induced by mineralocorticoid receptor, and NGAL-dependence remains unknown.Objective:We studied the role of dendritic cells in mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent tissue remodeling and whether NGAL can modulate the inflammatory response of dendritic cells after mineralocorticoid receptor activation.Methods:Cardiovascular and renal remodeling induced by Aldo and high-salt diet [nephrectomy-Aldo-salt (NAS) model] were analyzed in CD11c.DOG mice, a model which allows dendritic cells ablation by using diphtheria toxin. In addition, in-vitro studies in NGAL-knock out dendritic cells were performed to determine the immunomodulatory role of NGAL upon Aldo treatment.Results:The ablation of dendritic cells prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy, perivascular fibrosis, and the overexpression of NGAL, brain natriuretic peptide, and two profibrotic factors induced by NAS: collagen 1A1 and connective tissue growth factor. We determined that dendritic cells were not required to prevent renal hypertrophy/fibrosis induced by NAS. Between different immune cells analyzed, we observed that NGAL abundance was higher in antigen-presenting cells, while in-vitro studies showed that mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation in dendritic cells favored NGAL and IL-23 expression (p19 and p40 subunits), which are involved in the development of fibrosis and the Th17-driven response, respectively.Conclusion:NGAL produced by dendritic cells may play a pivotal role in the activation of adaptive immunity that leads to cardiovascular fibrosis during mineralocorticoids excess. © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
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