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dc.contributor.authorArango-Lasprilla J.C.
dc.contributor.authorRivera D.
dc.contributor.authorNicholls E.
dc.contributor.authorAguayo Arelis A.
dc.contributor.authorGarcía De La Cadena C.
dc.contributor.authorPeñalver Guia A.I.
dc.contributor.authorVergara-Moragues E.
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez-Lorenzana A.
dc.contributor.authorMarín-Morales A.
dc.contributor.authorSoto-Añari M.
dc.contributor.authorLara L.
dc.contributor.authorRodríguez-Agudelo Y.
dc.contributor.authorAlcazar Tebar C.
dc.contributor.authorGalarza-Del-Angel J.
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez-Irizarry W.
dc.contributor.authorIbañéz-Alfonso J.A.
dc.contributor.authorGarcía-Guerrero C.E.
dc.contributor.authorDelgado-Mejía I.D.
dc.contributor.authorPohlenz Amador S.
dc.contributor.authorSánchez-Sansegundo M.
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-02T22:12:22Z
dc.date.available2020-09-02T22:12:22Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier10.3233/NRE-172242
dc.identifier.citation41, 3, 617-626
dc.identifier.issn10538135
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12728/3577
dc.descriptionOBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the M-WCST as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. Number of categories, perseverative errors, and total error scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age 2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models indicated main effects for age on all scores, such that the number of categories correct increased and total number of perseverative errors and total number of errors decrease linearly as a function of age. Age 2 had a significant effect in Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, and Spain for numbers of categories; a significant effect for number of perseverative errors in Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Spain; and a significant effect for number of total errors in Chile, Cuba, Peru, and Spain. Models showed an effect for MLPE in Cuba (total errors), Ecuador (categories and total errors), Mexico (all scores), Paraguay (perseverative errors and total error), and Spain (categories and total errors). Sex affected number of total errors for Ecuador. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate way to interpret the M-WCST with pediatric populations. © 2017 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherIOS Press
dc.subjectModified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
dc.subjectneuropsychology
dc.subjectpediatric population
dc.subjectSpanish-speaking populations
dc.subjectchild
dc.subjectChile
dc.subjectCuba
dc.subjectEcuador
dc.subjecteducation
dc.subjecterror
dc.subjecthuman
dc.subjectmajor clinical study
dc.subjectMexico
dc.subjectmultiple linear regression analysis
dc.subjectneuropsychology
dc.subjectParaguay
dc.subjectPeru
dc.subjectSpain
dc.subjectspeech
dc.subjectWisconsin Card Sorting Test
dc.subjectlanguage
dc.subjectneuropsychological test
dc.subjectSouth and Central America
dc.subjectstandards
dc.subjectstatistical model
dc.subjectChild
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectLanguage
dc.subjectLatin America
dc.subjectLinear Models
dc.subjectNeuropsychological Tests
dc.titleModified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST): Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population
dc.typeArticle


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