In vertebrates, depending on the environment in which an embryo develops, different types of extraembryonic membranes are formed. In placental mammals the following extraembryonic membranes are formed: amnion, yolk sac, allantois, chorion and placenta. Extraembryonic membranes perform functions vital to the embryo. The amnion protects the embryo from drying, the mechanical trauma, temperature changes and adhesions which can distort it. The yolk sac is present in all vertebrates. In mammals allows the formation of the first blood vessels and the first blood, home to the primordial germ cells for some time; however, in fish and birds these have nutritional importance. In birds and mammals such as cattle, sheep and pig the allantois receives urinary wastes; this structure also contributes part of the bladder and at the time of birth becomes the suspensory ligament, urachus. The chorion form chorionic villus, which can produce hormones such as chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen. A portion of the chorionic sac helps form the placenta.
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